Prince George Medical Clinics - The medical term "Respiratory Disease" encompasses a large variety of pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues which make gas exchange possible. Respiratory disease comprises conditions of the upper respiratory tract, bronchi, trachea, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura, pleural cavity in addition to the muscles and nerves responsible for breathing. Respiratory diseases range from mild and self-limiting like the common cold for instance, to life-threatening conditions such as lung cancer, pulmonary embolism, and bacterial pneumonia.
The study of Pulmonology focuses on respiratory diseases, whilst those specializing physicians in this particular field are known as a pulmonologist. Medical practitioners in this field may also be known as: a respiratory medicine specialist, a thoracic medicine specialist, a respirologist and a chest medicine expert.
Respiratory diseases can be classified in a variety of different ways; either by the organ or tissue involved or by the pattern and type of connected symptoms and signs, or by the cause of the disease or etiology.
Inflammatory Lung Disease
Inflammatory Lung Disease is characterized by a high neutrophil count. Several examples comprise: acute respiratory distress syndrome, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder and cystic fibrosis.
A common cause of acute respiratory disease is an allergic reaction due to exposure to various agents and foods. There are some very common allergens found in some foods like for instance lemon, radish, sea foods like for example some fatty fish and prawns, bananas, peanuts, ice creams and dairy, pomegranates, arrowroot, lemon, berries and lady's finger. Climate can also affect several individuals as sandy and dusty climate during summertime may make the quality of air poor for those who are sensitive.
Obstructive Lung Diseases
This category of lung diseases are where the airways consisting of the alveoli, bronchi and bronchioles become reduced in volume or else have the free flow of gas impeded, hence making it harder to move air in and out of the lungs.
COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
COPD's like asthma and different obstructive lung diseases, the airways have become damaged and allow them to narrow.
Restrictive Lung Diseases or Interstitial Lung Diseases
This is a category of respiratory disease which is characterized by a loss of lung compliance. These lung diseases lead to increased lung stiffness and incomplete lung expansion. IRDS or likewise called Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome is an example.
Respiratory Tract Infections
Infections can affect any part of the respiratory system. They are usually divided into upper respiratory tract infections and lower respiratory tract infections.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
The common cold is the most common kind of upper respiratory infection. Infections of specific organs located within the upper respiratory tract such as pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, laryngitis and otitis media are likewise in this category.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
Pneumonia is the most common lower respiratory tract infection. It is a lung infection typically caused by bacteria, usually Streptococcus in the Western world. Tuberculosis is a large reason for pneumonia throughout the globe. Different fungi and viruses could cause pneumonia as well, for instance acute respiratory syndrome and pneumocystic pneumonia.
Respiratory tumours are either malignant or benign.
Pleural Cavity Diseases
Diseases of the pleural cavity consists of mesothelioma and emphysema. A collection of fluid in the pleural cavity is referred to as a pleural effusion. This can be caused by situations such as congestive heart failure and cirrhosis, because the fluid from the bloodstream shifts into the pleural cavity. Diseases here can likewise happen from TB, pleura inflammation, pulmonary embolus, mesothelioma and various conditions.
The pneumothorax is a hole in the pleura that helps to cover the lungs, where air is permitted inside the lungs to escape into the pleural cavity. A tension pneumothorax is a severe kind of this where the air could not escape in the pleural cavity and the pressure gets bigger eventually compressing the blood vessels and the heart, causing a dangerous life-threatening situation.
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases are certain conditions that affect the pulmonary flow. Instances of these diseases comprise: Pulmonary arterial hypertension, Pulmonary hemorrhage, Pulmonary edema and Pulmonary embolism.
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